Haemorrhoids, also called piles are a widening and proliferation of the vascular structures in the anal canal, manifesting by painful and rectal bleeding when defecating. Risk factors of haemorrhoids can be chronic constipations, diarrhoea, long time sitting at work and low physical activity.
Bleeding can be reported during defecation at the beginning of disease, especially in case of hard stool. As haemorrhoids progress bleeding increases and pain becomes more severe. With further progressing disease the haemorrhoids prolapse from the anus, they usually shrink after defecation. In the advanced stages of the disease the prolapse of the haemorrhoids can happen not only during defecation but also by coughing or sneezing, they do not return back by themselves but require manual assistance.
Haemorrhoids are also more common during pregnancy and after birth giving – the growing foetus increases pressure upon the intestines and blood vessels, which lead to blood stasis, facilitating formation of haemorrhoids under the rectal mucous membranes.
Often patients suffering from haemorrhoids restrain from looking medical advice and hope that the problems will resolve spontaneously, until they get even worse. Timely diagnosed haemorrhoids can be cured without the discomfort for the patients, therefore, after noticing the above mentioned symptoms it is recommended to contact the specialist.
A conservative treatment can be prescribed for the patient if the early stage haemorrhoids are diagnosed. A surgery (haemorrhoidectomy) is carried out when conservative treatment fails.
Haemorrhoidectomy is usually carried out under spinal anaesthesia and the surgery technique is adapted individually to each patient. The anal canal is widened during the surgery and applying the special instrument such altered haemorrhoids are extirpated.