Umbilical hernia is a defect of the umbilical ring allowing the peritoneum and abdominal organs to enter the subcutaneous space. Umbilical hernia is characterised by painless, oval or round-shaped bulge of umbilicus, especially distinct while standing. The content easily returns back into the abdominal cavity after pushing the bulge.
Significant obesity, fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity, several deliveries and previous abdominal surgeries can predispose development of the umbilical hernias.
If appropriate medical assistance was not received timely and an umbilical hernia repair surgery was not carried out, the hernia can become incarcerated.
Umbilical hernia repair surgery can be carried out applying open or laparoscopic techniques under general anaesthesia. In case of open surgery, an incision is made during the surgery; the size of incision depends on the extent of hernia – the content of hernia is moved back to the abdominal cavity through that cut and sutures are applied on the abdominal wall. Considering the individual case, a special mesh can be used to strengthen the abdominal wall, which reduces the risk of hernia recurrence.
In case of laparoscopic surgical technique several incisions are made in the abdominal wall, which are used to introduce laparoscopic camera and special instruments into the abdominal cavity, the instruments are used to inflate carbon dioxide gas into the abdominal cavity; and physician can see the abdominal cavity and all preformed activities in the monitor. At the end of the surgery the abdominal wall is strengthened by application of synthetic mesh.